Why do we need service discovery?¶
In order to execute chaincode on peers, submit transactions to orderers, and to be updated about the status of transactions, applications connect to an API exposed by an SDK.
However, the SDK needs a lot of information in order to allow applications to connect to the relevant network nodes. In addition to the CA and TLS certificates of the orderers and peers on the channel – as well as their IP addresses and port numbers – it must know the relevant endorsement policies as well as which peers have the chaincode installed (so the application knows which peers to send chaincode proposals to).
Prior to v1.2, this information was statically encoded. However, this implementation is not dynamically reactive to network changes (such as the addition of peers who have installed the relevant chaincode, or peers that are temporarily offline). Static configurations also do not allow applications to react to changes of the endorsement policy itself (as might happen when a new organization joins a channel).
In addition, the client application has no way of knowing which peers have updated ledgers and which do not. As a result, the application might submit proposals to peers whose ledger data is not in sync with the rest of the network, resulting in transaction being invalidated upon commit and wasting resources as a consequence.
The discovery service improves this process by having the peers compute the needed information dynamically and present it to the SDK in a consumable manner.
How service discovery works in Fabric¶
The application is bootstrapped knowing about a group of peers which are
trusted by the application developer/administrator to provide authentic responses
to discovery queries. A good candidate peer to be used by the client application
is one that is in the same organization. Note that in order for peers to be known
to the discovery service, they must have an
EXTERNAL_ENDPOINT defined. To see
how to do this, check out our Service Discovery CLI documentation.
The application issues a configuration query to the discovery service and obtains all the static information it would have otherwise needed to communicate with the rest of the nodes of the network. This information can be refreshed at any point by sending a subsequent query to the discovery service of a peer.
The service runs on peers – not on the application – and uses the network metadata information maintained by the gossip communication layer to find out which peers are online. It also fetches information, such as any relevant endorsement policies, from the peer’s state database.
With service discovery, applications no longer need to specify which peers they need endorsements from. The SDK can simply send a query to the discovery service asking which peers are needed given a channel and a chaincode ID. The discovery service will then compute a descriptor comprised of two objects:
- Layouts: a list of groups of peers and a corresponding amount of peers from each group which should be selected.
- Group to peer mapping: from the groups in the layouts to the peers of the channel. In practice, each group would most likely be peers that represent individual organizations, but because the service API is generic and ignorant of organizations this is just a “group”.
The following is an example of a descriptor from the evaluation of a policy of
AND(Org1, Org2) where there are two peers in each of the organizations.
“Org1”: [peer0.org1, peer1.org1],
“Org2”: [peer0.org2, peer1.org2]
In other words, the endorsement policy requires a signature from one peer in Org1
and one peer in Org2. And it provides the names of available peers in those orgs who
can endorse (
peer1 in both Org1 and in Org2).
The SDK then selects a random layout from the list. In the example above, the
endorsement policy is Org1
AND Org2. If instead it was an
OR policy, the SDK
would randomly select either Org1 or Org2, since a signature from a peer from either
Org would satisfy the policy.
After the SDK has selected a layout, it selects from the peers in the layout based on a criteria specified on the client side (the SDK can do this because it has access to metadata like ledger height). For example, it can prefer peers with higher ledger heights over others – or to exclude peers that the application has discovered to be offline – according to the number of peers from each group in the layout. If no single peer is preferable based on the criteria, the SDK will randomly select from the peers that best meet the criteria.
Capabilities of the discovery service¶
The discovery service can respond to the following queries:
- Configuration query: Returns the
MSPConfigof all organizations in the channel along with the orderer endpoints of the channel.
- Peer membership query: Returns the peers that have joined the channel.
- Endorsement query: Returns an endorsement descriptor for given chaincode(s) in a channel.
- Local peer membership query: Returns the local membership information of the peer that responds to the query. By default the client needs to be an administrator for the peer to respond to this query.
When the peer is running with TLS enabled the client must provide a TLS certificate when connecting to the peer. If the peer isn’t configured to verify client certificates (clientAuthRequired is false), this TLS certificate can be self-signed.